Comparison of Teacher Evaluation ModelsNew Jersey schools use a multitude of different teacher evaluation models, including majorframeworks recognized nationally and regionally and individual models developed by schooldistricts and approved by the state. NJ Spotlight (February, 2013) lists the most popular models,from a total of 85% of districts reporting (496) at the time of the article. Five models accounted forover 95% of districts reporting at that time.The five most popular models are:1. Charlotte Danielson Framework for Teachers: 291 districts or 60%2. Stronge Teacher and Leader Effectiveness Performance System: 53 districts or 11%3. Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) Teacher Evaluation Standards: 45districts or 9%4. Marzano's Causal Teacher Evaluation Model: 44 districts or 9%5. The Marshall Rubrics: 32 districts or 6.5%Charlotte Danielson Framework for TeachersThe Danielson Framework consists of four domains: Planning and Preparation; The ClassroomEnvironment; Instruction; and Professional Responsibilities. These domains are broken down into atotal of 22 components. Each component contains from one to five elements.The Planning and Preparation domain includes teacher knowledge of content, students andresources, and designing instruction and instructional outcomes and student assessments. TheClassroom Environment domain includes creating an environment of respect/rapport and culturefor learning; managing classroom procedures and student behavior, and organizing space. TheInstruction domain includes communicating and using question/discussion techniques withstudents, engaging students in learning, ongoing assessment, and showingflexibility/responsiveness. The Professional Responsibilities domain includes teacher reflection,keeping records, communicating with families, and professional participation, integrity and growth.Stronge Teacher and Leader Effectiveness Performance System:The Stronge model is composed of seven performance standards: Professional Knowledge,Instructional Planning, Instructional Delivery, Assessment of/for Learning, the LearningEnvironment, Professionalism and Communication, and Student Progress.The Professional Knowledge standard concerns teacher understanding of curriculum, subjectmatter, pedagogical knowledge, and students’ developmental needs. The Instructional Planningstandard concerns planning using state standards and the district curriculum, as well as appropriateresources, data and relevant strategies. The Instructional Delivery standard pertains to teachers’use of varied instructional strategies effective in meeting individual learning needs. In Assessmentof/for Learning, the standard pertains to the use of a variety of formative and summativeassessment and the use of data. The Learning Environment standard concerns development of asafe, “student-centered, academic environment conducive to learning” (Stronge/NJEA Review,2011, para. 6). The Professionalism and Communication pertains to professional ethics, growth andcommunication. The Student Progress standard concerns commitment to and evidence of effective,standards-based student learning outcomes.Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning (Morel) Teacher Evaluation Standards
The McREL model consists of five standards, under which are a total of 25 elements. The standardsand elements are statements of teacher proficiencies. The standards are as follows:1. Teachers Demonstrates Leadership; 2. Teachers establish a respectful environment for a diversepopulation of students; 3. Teachers know the content they teach; 4. Teachers facilitate learning fortheir students; 5. Teachers reflect on their practices. Standard 1 includes leadership in theclassroom, school and profession, ethical standards and advocacy. Standard 2 includes providing anurturing environment, embracing diversity, individualizing and adapting instruction andcommunicating with families. Standard 3 includes content knowledge, alignment of instruction tostandards, recognizing interconnections, and making instruction relevant to students. Standard 4includes understanding how children develop and learn, planning appropriate instruction, using avariety of learning materials, integrating technology, and developing critical thinking. Standard 5includes reflecting on practice, analyzing learning, professionalism and professional development,and effective institutional functioning.Marzano's Causal Teacher Evaluation ModelThe Marzano model comprises four domains, with 60 elements that are contained within segmentsor sub components of the domains. The four domains are: 1. Classroom strategies and behaviors; 2.Planning and Preparing; 3. Reflection on Teaching; 4. Collegiality and Professionalism. Classroomstrategies and behaviors involves 41 elements on routines, content and “on the spot” behaviorsdemonstrated by teachers. Planning and preparing includes 8 elements on lesson and unit planninguse of technology and materials, and student (special) needs. Reflecting on teaching Includes 5elements on self-evaluation of performance and plan(s) for professional growth. Collegiality andProfessionalism involves 6 elements on promotion of a positive environment, exchanging of ideasand school and district development.The Marshall RubricsThe Marshall model consists of a series of 10 rubrics in six domains. A. Planning and Preparation forLearning; B. Classroom Management; C. Delivery of Instruction; D. Monitoring, Assessment, andFollow-Up; E. Family and Community Outreach; F. Professional Responsibilities. Planning andPreparation for Learning includes planning of units and lessons, and assessments that anticipatestudent responses and engagement and differentiate learning. Classroom Management includesbuilding relationships and respect with students, developing positive student interactions andresponsibility, and efficiently and providing varied and creative incentives for students. Delivery ofInstruction includes having high expectations, clear goals and content, engaging students inlearning, differentiating instruction, being nimble and summarizing learning. Monitoring,Assessment, and Follow-Up includes having clear assessment criteria and varied forms ofassessment, analysis/diagnosis and follow up of data, support for students with special needs andreflecting on practice. Family and Community Outreach includes showing respect for, believing inand expecting family/community involvement, communication and outreach with stakeholders,and use of varied community resources. Professional Responsibilities includes high attendance,professional demeanor and judgment, collaboration, and professional/leadership growth anddevelopment.The Following pages provide a table aligning the elements of the five models described above toeach other and to the New Jersey Professional Standards for Teachers.
Comparison Table of Evaluation Models with Each Other and With the New Jersey Professional Teaching StandardsDanielsonStronge1.a Demonstrating Knowledgeof Content & Pedagogy:i. Content knowledge1.4 The teacherdemonstrates an accurateknowledge of the subjectmatter3.B. Teachers knowthe contentappropriate to theirteaching specialty1.8. Previewing NewContent1.11. Elaborating on NewInformation1.1 The teacher effectivelyaddresses appropriatecurriculum standards.3.C. Teachersrecognize theinterconnectednessof contentarea/discipline3.A. Teachers aligntheir instruction withthe NewJersey/Common CoreCurriculum ContentStandards andapproved Districtcurriculum1.a.ii Prerequisite relationships1.a.ii Content pedagogy1.2 The teacher integrateskey content elements andfacilitates students’ use ofhigher level thinking skillsin instruction1.5 The teacherdemonstrates skillsrelevant to the subjectarea(s) taught1.b. DemonstratingKnowledge of Students:i. Child development1.7 The teacherdemonstrates anunderstanding of theintellectual, social,emotional, and physicaldevelopment of the agegroup1.b.ii Learning process1.3 The teacherdemonstrates ability tolink present content withpast and future learningexperiences, other subjectareas, and real worldexperiences andapplications.McRELMarzanoMarshalNJ PTSA. a. KnowledgeElements 1.1-1.82.44. Attention toEstablished ContentStandardsA. b. StandardsElement 1.93.B. Teachers knowthe contentappropriate to theirteaching specialty1.9. Chunking contentinto digestible bitesA. g. EngagementElements 1.1-1.44.A. Teachers knowthe ways in whichlearning takes place,and they know theappropriate levels ofintellectual physical,social, and emotionaldevelopment of theirstudents3.D. Teachers makeinstruction relevantto students2.42. Effective Scaffoldingof Information withLessonsA. i. DifferentiationElements 2.1-2.42.42. Effective Scaffoldingof Information withLessonsA. c. AnticipationC. d. ConnectionsElements 2.1-2.41.10. Processing of NewInformation1.12. Recording andRepresenting Knowledge
1.b.iii Special needs1.b.iv student skills, knowledge& proficiency2.3 The teacher plans fordifferentiated instruction1.7 The teacherdemonstrates anunderstanding of theintellectual, social,emotional, and physicaldevelopment of the agegroup3.2 The teacher buildsupon students’ existingknowledge and skills1.b.v Interests & culturalheritage5.5 The teacher promotescultural sensitivity5.6 The teacher respectsstudents’ diversity,including language,culture, race, gender, andspecial needs1.c Setting InstructionalOutcomes:i Value, sequence & alignment2.4 The teacher alignslesson objectives to theschool’s curriculum andstudent learning needs1.c.ii Clarity3.7 The teachercommunicates clearly andchecks for understanding2.5 The teacher developsappropriate long- andshort-range plans, andadapts plans when needed1.c.iii Balance2.B. Teachersembrace diversity inthe schoolcommunity and theworld2.C. Teachers treatstudents asindividuals4.A. Teachers knowthe ways in whichlearning takes place,and they know theappropriate levels ofintellectual physical,social, and emotionaldevelopment of theirstudents2.B. Teachersembrace diversity inthe schoolcommunity and theworld3.D. Teachers makeinstruction relevantto students3.A. Teachers aligntheir instruction withthe NewJersey/Common CoreCurriculum ContentStandards andapproved Districtcurriculum4.G. Teacherscommunicateeffectively4.B. Teachers planinstructionappropriate for theirstudents1.39. DemonstratingValue and Respect forLow Expectancy Students1.48. Needs of StudentsReceiving SpecialEducation1.17. ExaminingSimilarities andDifferencesA. c. AnticipationA. i. DifferentiationD. h. SupportElement 2.7-2.9Elements 7.1-7.8D. h. Support1.18. Examining Errors inReasoningElements 1.1-1.4Elements 2.1-2.3Elements 1.1-1.41.36. UnderstandingStudents’ Interests andBackgroundA. g. EngagementElement 3.1, 3.5Elements 3.8-3.101.6. Identifying CriticalInformationA. g. EngagementElements 1.1-1.4C. e. ClarityElements 8.4 and 8.6A. c. UnitsA. f. LessonsElement 1.12.43. Lessons within Units
1.c.iv Suitability for diverselearners2.3 The teacher plans fordifferentiated instruction3.3 The teacherdifferentiates instructionto meet the students’needs1.d Demonstrating Knowledgeof Resources:i For classroom1.d.ii To extend contentknowledge1.d.iii For students1.e Designing CoherentInstruction:i Learning activities1.e.ii Instructional materials &resources1.e.iii Instructional groups3.5 The teacher uses avariety of effectiveinstructional strategies andresources3.6 The teacher usesinstructional technology toenhance student learning1.2 The Teacher integrateskey content elements andfacilitates students’ use ofhigher level thinking skillsin instruction3.6 The teacher usesinstructional technology toenhance student learning4.4 The teacher alignsstudent assessment withestablished curriculumstandards and benchmarks3.5 The teacher uses avariety of effectiveinstructional strategies andresources5.1 The teacher arrangesthe classroom to maximizelearning while providing asafe environment3.D. Teachers makeinstruction relevantto students4.D. Teachersintegrate and utilizetechnology in theirinstruction1.39. DemonstratingValue and Respect forLow Expectancy StudentsElement 2.7-2.92.47. Needs of EnglishLanguage LearnersElements 7.1-7.82.48. Needs of StudentsReceiving SpecialEducationElements 7.1-7.82.49. Needs of StudentsWho Lack Support forSchooling2.45. Use of AvailableTraditional ResourcesElements 7.1-7.8A. h. MaterialsElement 4.8Element 4.10Element 7.7A. c. UnitsA. f LessonsElement 4.8Element 4.102.46. Use of AvailableTechnology4.E. Teachers helpstudents developcritical thinking andproblem solving skills2.46. Use of AvailableTechnology3.D. Teachers makeinstruction relevantto students2.45. Use of AvailableTraditional Resources4.B. Teachers planinstructionappropriate for theirstudents4.C. Teachers use avariety ofinstructionalmaterials4.E. Teachers helpstudents work inteams and developleadership qualitiesA. i. DifferentiationElement 7.7A. g. EngagementElement 4.8Element 4.102.46. Use of AvailableTechnology1.25. Using AcademicGamesElement 7.7A. f LessonsA. g. EngagementElements 4.2 and 4.31.14. Reviewing ContentA. h. MaterialsElements 1.1 through 1.31.23. Providing Resourcesand Guidance1.15. Organizing Studentsto Practice and DeepenKnowledgeElement 1.9A. j. EnvironmentElement 6.11 and 6.12
1.e.iv Lesson and unit structure1.f Designing StudentAssessments:i Congruence with outcomes1.f.ii Criteria and standards1.f.iii Formative assessments1.g Use for planning2.a Creating an Environmentof Respect & Rapport:i. Teacher interaction withstudents2.a.ii Student interaction withstudents2.5 The teacher developsappropriate long- andshort-range plans, andadapts plans when needed4.4 The teacher alignsstudent assessment withestablished curriculumstandards and benchmarks2.4 The teacher alignslesson objectives to theschool’s curriculum andstudent learning needs4.5 The teacher usesassessment tools for bothformative and summativepurposes, and uses gradingpractices that report finalmastery in relationship tocontent goals andobjectives4.6 The teacher uses