Russian Language русский язык - TAU

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Russian Languageрусский язык Daniel LabenskiMT Seninar 2014Tel Aviv University

Russian 150 million native speakers 110 million as a secondary language It is the most geographicallywidespread language of Eurasia

Russian Origin 500 AD the Slavic peoplesseparated into Western, Eastern,and Southern groups Later, on unknown date, theEastern Slavic language divided intoUkrainian, Byelorussian, andRussian

Phonology & Script A modified version of the Cyrillic alphabet. Vowels: 5 vowels, which are written with different letters depending on whether or not the precedingconsonant is palatalized. Consonants: Consonants are divided into palatalized (soft) and non-palatalized (hard) ones unlike English. Signs:

Morphology A highly fusional morphology Words are formed using affixes which can be stacked one upon the other Russian has some use of agglutinative compounds. металлоломообеспечение “provision of scrap iron” Word reduplication may occur in everyday spoken language: белый-белый “(white-white)- very white (snow)”

Morphology - Example

Russian Grammar 3 genders: masculine, feminine and neutral no article!! (such as the, a, an in English) Verbs Inflected for three personstwo numbersthree tenses (present, future and past)Marked for two voices, active and passive.Marked for Mood. Formed by adding бы (would) after a verb in past tense

Word Order Free word order! Examples: Я пошёл в магазин. (I went to the store)Я в магазин пошёл. (I to the store went)Пошёл я в магазин. (Went I to the store)Пошёл в магазин я. (Went to the store I)В магазин я пошёл. (To the store I went)В магазин пошёл я. (To the store went I)

Translation Tools Google Translate (since 2006) Russian-English, English-Russian translator (and through English to other languages) text-to-speech property phonetic typing Russian word-form morphological analyzers

References language grammar s-about-the-russianlanguage Michal Faktor Presentation, Seminar in NLP 2011, nachumd/NLP/2011/Languages/Russian.pdf