ISM Webinar March 2016 FINAL VERSION Mar 28

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01/04/2016Welcome!Music & Dyslexia - Definitions,difficulties, strengths and strategiesSally Daunt Chair of British Dyslexia Association’sMusic committee since January 2012 Music teacher(secondary/ FE): 25 yrs Piano teacher ISM ManchesterCommittee 1990s Orchestral player Choral singer (RLPC)1

01/04/2016Dr. Paula Bishop-Liebler Additional support tutor and assessorworking with Conservatoire students inLondon for more than 10yrs Doctoral research in musicand dyslexia Studied singing at theRoyal Academy of Music Singing teacher Member of BDA MusicRelevance It’s important because 10% of peopleare dyslexic, 4% severely so Good approaches for dyslexicmusicians are often good for all! It’s more about adding to andre-framing what you already do2

01/04/2016Content of the session1. What is dyslexia?2. What’s it like being dyslexic?3. How can teachers recognise dyslexicpupils?4. How does dyslexia relate to music?5. What can we do to help?6. Exams – reasonable adjustments7. Where to go for more informationDefinition Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that primarilyaffects the skills involved in accurate and fluent wordreading and spelling. Characteristic features of dyslexia are difficulties inphonological awareness, verbal memory and verbalprocessing speed. Dyslexia occurs across the range of intellectual abilities.It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinctcategory, and there are no clear cut-off points. Co-occurring difficulties may be seen in aspects oflanguage, motor co-ordination, mental calculation,concentration and personal organisation, but these arenot, by themselves, markers of dyslexia. (Rose, 2009, Identifying and Teaching Children and Young People with Dyslexia andLiteracy Difficulties. p.10).3

01/04/2016BDA definitionIn addition to these characteristics, the BDAacknowledges the visual and auditoryprocessing difficulties that some individualswith dyslexia can experience, and points outthat dyslexic readers can show acombination of abilities and difficulties thataffect the learning process. Some also havestrengths in other areas, such as design,problem solving, creative skills, interactiveskills and oral skills.(BDA, 2014).Key features Primarily affectslanguage Cognitive difference Independent of intelligence Range of difficulties Hereditary Developmental4

01/04/2016Dyslexia across the lifespan Dyslexia covers the life span Many teenagers and adults are wellcompensated dyslexics This is when the person has ‘cracked thecode’ they can read and write but thespeed and accuracy of processing is apersistent difficulty.So, what’s it like beingdyslexic? Read this On ceup on atim ethereweret wobe ars Once upon a time therewere two bears5

01/04/2016Secondary features Stress Anxiety ( mental healthproblems) Exhaustion Lack ofconfidence Lowself-esteem Poor motivationDyslexic strengths Dyslexic people often have strengthsin Creative skills Design, Problemsolving, Interactiveskills Oral skills6

01/04/2016Dyslexia is One of a number of Specific LearningDifficulties (SpLDs) including Dyspraxia (developmentalco-ordination disorder) Dyscalculia Attention deficit(and hyperactivity) disorder Autistic spectrum disorder Often these will overlap. People may beunder the SpLD umbrella in different waysOther factors: visual stressSometimes called Meares-Irlen syndromePrint (including music)can – Distort Swirl around Jump about PulsateEspecially with black onwhite7

01/04/2016What can we do to help? Use off-white paper Off whitebackgroundsto music,PowerPoints,computers etc Pupils shouldchoose preferred colour Coloured overlaysIf a person has particular problems – s/he canbe referred to a specialist optometrist for acolorimeter testDetails from the Institute ofOptometryhttp://www.ioo.org.uk/dsabriefing.pdf and the section 'Eyes andDyslexia' on the B.D.A. urther-information/eyes-anddyslexia.html.Online tests also available.Coloured overlay: available as a pack of 10filters through the B.D.A. shop atwww.bdadyslexia.org.uk. Try them out.8

01/04/2016Visual format of the scoreThe visual format of the score can supportor hinder dyslexic musicians’ processingspeedThings to consider include: Proportions of the bars How visually busy the score is Visual layout of rhythmic groupingsEnlarge and/or adapt Photocopy bigger Use of modified stave notation Different colour background Different colourfont/music notes9

01/04/2016Modified Stave ic-accessible-formats/modified-stave-notationUse of technology: ForScore – musicreader for iPad or Sight Read Ltd.10

01/04/2016Re-write notationFor Visually difficult bar proportions or Rhythmical groupingsRe-writing the sectionof musicusing software suchas Sibeliuscan make it mucheasier to processCan wephotocopymusicin order tore-format it?11

01/04/2016Music Publishers’Association – Clause 11.Note re copying music“Reading impairments: A person with anykind of cognitive impairment or condition(such as, but not limited to, dyslexia)(whether diagnosed or not) resulting in adiminished or limited ability to read musicor text as conventionally printed, maymake copies in a format that enable themmore easily to read a publication(such as, but not limited to, byenlarging it and/or by usingcoloured paper), provided thathe/she has already legallyacquired his/her own copyof the conventionally printeditem.See MPA Code of Fair air-practice12

01/04/2016If you give written info Avoid Times New RomanTahoma is good (this doc) – no serifsFont size – at least 12 pointAt least 1.5 spacingAvoid italics, underlining & CAPITALSAvoid handwritten materialPut ‘BDA Dyslexia Style Guide’ into asearch engine.How can we recognise a profileof Specific Learning Difficulties? A mis-match between intellectual andactual ability Seems to grasp a skills one day, thenstart again from scratch the next Weak processing speed Poor short-term memory Emotional impacts Difficulties processing visual material13

01/04/2016How can dyslexiaaffect music?Commonly reporteddifficulties with music Reading musical notation (especially sightreading and singing) Learning new music quickly Rhythmical difficulties especially from notation Music theory Scanning music/following a conductor Mapping from music to instrument (especiallyfingerings) Aural, especially dictation and sequencing Sustained concentration14

01/04/2016What can we do to help? Work from sound first, and written musiclater Think about whether written music isreally needed for a particular student Consider visual format/colouredoverlays/tinted glasses Be multi-sensory Use over-learning/revision Allow more timeBe patient and involve pupils Tell me – and I’ll forget Teach me – and I may remember Involveme and Ilearn15

01/04/2016Organisation for musicians No 2 weeks the same Rehearsals Practice needs to beorganised Remembering totake all the rightthings – music,instrument,equipment etcWays of helping To do lists/reminders Luggage label on music case? Be imaginative!!Use technology! Texts/emails Student: reminders on mobile Teacher’s own website YouTube video on how to practice?16

01/04/2016More strategies Lesson: outline content; summarise duringand at the end. Chunk information Break down tasks Small targets Systematic learning (make sure of one point/skill before going on) generally the useof a study buddy(another pupil?)Colourcodenotes/music –the studentchooseshis/herpreferredcolour17

01/04/2016Strategies to support Memory for –– Instructions– Pitch/rhythm (aural tests)o Break the musicup into smaller unitsWord confusion Get right and left muddledo Point, don’t say Musical terms e.g. – ‘high’; ‘low’; ‘up’;‘down’ – demonstrate as well as labelMulti-sensory approaches VisualPictures; diagrams;mind maps;colour coding;demonstrationsOralExplanations; repetition;recordings; discussion KinaestheticHands-on; tactile exploration; writing18

01/04/2016ExamplesSet worksPupils could play or sing key themesAural: recognition of different intervalsSing them; make shapes in the air; tunes(of pupil’s choice) thatuse the interval Recognition of metre Mark a pulse physically –by walking, running etc Useful multi-sensoryapproaches Dalcroze approaches (eurythmics)See: http://www.dalcroze.org.ukKodály approachesSee: http://kodaly.org.uk/19

01/04/2016If you think someone may bedyslexic (or have another SpLD) Talk to parents/contact SENCo in school. S/he may be able to arrange for anassessment by an EducationalPsychologist or specialist teacher withrecognised qualifications. This test can also be done privately nd-assessmentExams20

01/04/2016 How may dyslexia (and otherSpecific Learning Difficulties)affect music exams?Sight readingImpact of visual stress on writtenmaterialShort term memory problemsaffecting aural andRemembering instructions (“Pleaseplay B harmonic minor, a third apart,staccato”)Written exams Readinginformationat speed &correctly Interpretinginstructions‘Using crotchets, write one octave ascending of themelodic minor scale that begins on the given note.Do not use a key signature, but write in all thenecessary accidentals.’21

01/04/2016What adjustments are oftenavailable in music exams? Extra time. Practical: sight reading (SR); aural;transposition etc. Written exams – normally25%. Bits of practical exam in any order Replays of scales May be able to use a scale book Use of words/prompt sheet in singing exams Aural: additional attempts Annotation of SR tests (take own pens) Not all options necessarily available for allboards or at all levelsWritten materialin practical (aural, SR etc)and theory examsCan be Enlarged Created in Modified Stave Notation Printed on tinted paper of the candidate’schoice Possibly printed with different colours of printreverse black/white etc. Samples and copies of the tint requiredneed to be sent to the Board IN ADVANCE Coloured overlays can be used (take them!)22

01/04/2016Sources of info ABRSM http://gb.abrsm.org/pt/exambooking/specific-needs/ Trinity College London (‘Music Special Needs’)http://www.trinitycollege.com/site/?id 2960 London College of Music (‘Equality eb/LCMExams/equal%20opportunities.pdf Rockschool (‘Reasonable /f/1265281/16608723/1329307038350/Reasonable Adjustments and Special Considerations Policy.pdf?token 6MesjFyRdCKvmcryw8PPf8nooKo%3D Registry of Guitar Tutors – see LondonCollege of Music Victoria College (General Regulations,sections 9 & p23

01/04/2016But remember You must apply for reasonable adjustmentsin very good time before any exam Proof of dyslexia (or other disability) isneeded This can be a report from the candidate’sschool or (especially for adults) some otherform of assessment Contact [email protected] formore info There are a huge variety of alternativesyllabuses which are worth looking atAlternative syllabusesNo pass/fail options include AB Prep test; Performance Assessment;Jazz Performance Assessment Trinity Music certificate;Alternative areas include AB Ensemble (inc choral); Jazz(solo/ensemble); Practical musicianship Trinity Piano duet; other ensemble; rockand pop24

01/04/2016No sight reading &/or scales&/or aural AB Performance Assessment; Musicmedals; Jazz; Ensembles Trinity Music Certificate; Rock & Pop London Recital grades; Leisure play;Performance awards; Ensemble etc.– Note Performance awards are assessedby DVD (not live)What more can you do to helpyourself understand this subject?25

01/04/2016Info booklet available [email protected] book isavailablefrom the lexia/26

01/04/2016Look at examples of dyslexicmusicians e.g. ‘A pianist’s story’ by Gill Backhouse inMusic and Dyslexia: Opening New Doors.Also available separately from BDA Music. “Lessons with her first teacher became anordeal” “She saw patterns and shapes in music” She was allowed to take the lead inlessons She was encouraged to focus on structure& play with her eyes closed27

01/04/2016Courses and qualifications Practical Solutions for MusicLearning and Dyslexia3 days – 1st ise-learning2 are musicspecific6th & 7th April2016: London. [email protected] / 0333 405 4565Good ‘dyslexic’ strategies aregood strategies for all students28

01/04/2016Questions?Want to be on the BDA Musicmailing list? Have a copy of theinformation [email protected]: copyrightAll images in this presentation are copyright and producedwith permission from the following:o The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Musico Trinity College of Musico London College of Musico The Incorporated Society of Musicianso The British Kodály Academyo The British Dyslexia Associationo Jollyimageso Sally Daunt and students at the Liverpool Institute forPerforming Artso Andrew Millinchip and the Grange School, Hartford29