Texas Essential Knowledge And Skills For Grade 2

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revised August 2020Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Grade 2§110.4. English Language Arts and Reading§116.4. Physical Education§111.4. Mathematics§117.108. Art§112.13. Science§117.109. Music§113.13. Social Studies§117.110. Theatre§114.4. Languages Other Than English§126.6. Technology Applications§115.4. Health Education§110.4. English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.(a)Introduction.(1)The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embodythe interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the sevenintegrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension;response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. Thestrands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authenticreading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated andprogressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexityand nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language andliteracy.(2)The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading areintended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands includethe four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in orderto accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social andacademic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, eachstrand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout theyear. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills.Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided.Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on adaily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.(3)Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures,nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas(Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills andknowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlierstandards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become selfdirected, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.(4)English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however,their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate thisknowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requiresadditional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates,1

revised August 2020summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes ofcomprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their firstlanguage to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connecteddiscourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important toensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.(b)(5)Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisitionwith quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academiclanguage proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academicpotential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the EnglishLanguage Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels toensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a furtherunderstanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-leveldescriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).(6)Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must bemaximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers andproficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading,and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and applythe academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).(7)Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while thosecontaining the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.Knowledge and skills.(1)(2)Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, andthinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, anddiscussion. The student is expected to:(A)listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions usingmulti-word responses;(B)follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;(C)share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly atan appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;(D)work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, includinglistening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, andbuilding on the ideas of others; and(E)develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, andthinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge throughphonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, andspell. The student is expected to:(A)demonstrate phonological awareness by:(i)producing a series of rhyming words;(ii)distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable and multisyllable words;(iii)recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added,changed, or removed; and2

revised August 2020(iv)(B)(C)(3)(4)manipulating phonemes within base words;demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:(i)decoding words with short, long, or variant vowels, trigraphs, and blends;(ii)decoding words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;(iii)decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCesyllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables;and final stable syllables;(iv)decoding compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;(v)decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV,VCV, and VCCCV;(vi)decoding words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectionalendings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and(vii)identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:(i)spelling one-syllable and multisyllabic words with closed syllables; opensyllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; rcontrolled syllables; and final stable syllables;(ii)spelling words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;(iii)spelling compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;(iv)spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;(v)spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns, including wordswith double consonants in the middle of the word; and(vi)spelling words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectionalendings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est;(D)alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and(E)develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokeswhen connecting letters.Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, andthinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student isexpected to:(A)use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;(B)use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;(C)identify the meaning of and use words with affixes un-, re-, -ly, -er, and -est (comparativeand superlative), and -ion/tion/sion; and(D)identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographsin context.Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, andthinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Thestudent is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading gradelevel text.3

revised August 2020(5)Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, andthinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Thestudent is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.(6)Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts.The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasinglycomplex texts. The student is expected to:(7)(8)(A)establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;(B)generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understandingand gain information;(C)make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, andstructures;(D)create mental images to deepen understanding;(E)make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;(F)make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;(G)evaluate details read to determine key ideas;(H)synthesize information to create new understanding; and(I)monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using backgroundknowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaksdown.Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. Thestudent responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed.The student is expected to:(A)describe personal connections to a variety of sources;(B)write brief comments on literary or informational texts that demonstrate an understandingof the text;(C)use text evidence to support an appropriate response;(D)retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;(E)interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and(F)respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literaryelements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasinglycomplex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expectedto:(A)discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;(B)describe the main character's (characters') internal and external traits;(C)describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict, and theresolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and(D)describe the importance of the setting.4

revised August 2020(9)Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres.The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposeswithin and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts.The student is expected to:(A)demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children'sliterature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;(B)explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;(C)discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting;(D)recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:(E)(F)(10)(11)(i)the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;(ii)features and graphics to locate and gain information; and(iii)organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect statedexplicitly;recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including:(i)stating what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and(ii)distinguishing facts from opinion; andrecognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multipletexts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence andcommunicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craftpurposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student isexpected to:(A)discuss the author's purpose for writing text;(B)discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;(C)discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;(D)discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;(E)identify the use of first or third person in a text; and(F)identify and explain the use of repetition.Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writingprocess. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that arelegible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:(A)plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;(B)develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:(i)organizing with struct