INTERNATIONAL ISO STANDARD 14001 - Un-ihe

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INTERNATIONALSTANDARDISO14001Second edition2004-11-15Environmental management systems —Requirements with guidance for useSystèmes de management environnemental — Exigences et lignesdirectrices pour son utilisationReference numberISO 14001:2004(E) ISO 2004

ISO 14001:2004(E)PDF disclaimerThis PDF file may contain embedded typefaces. In accordance with Adobe's licensing policy, this file may be printed or viewed but shallnot be edited unless the typefaces which are embedded are licensed to and installed on the computer performing the editing. Indownloading this file, parties accept therein the responsibility of not infringing Adobe's licensing policy. The ISO Central Secretariataccepts no liability in this area.Adobe is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.Details of the software products used to create this PDF file can be found in the General Info relative to the file; the PDF-creationparameters were optimized for printing. Every care has been taken to ensure that the file is suitable for use by ISO member bodies. In theunlikely event that a problem relating to it is found, please inform the Central Secretariat at the address given below. ISO 2004All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from either ISO at the address below orISO's member body in the country of the requester.ISO copyright officeCase postale 56 CH-1211 Geneva 20Tel. 41 22 749 01 11Fax 41 22 749 09 47E-mail [email protected] www.iso.orgPublished in Switzerlandii ISO 2004 – All rights reserved

ISO 14001:2004(E)ContentsPage1Scope .12Normative references .13Terms and definitions .14Environmental management system requirements .44.1 General requirements .44.2 Environmental policy .44.3 Planning .44.4 Implementation and operation .54.5 Checking .74.6 Management review .9Annex A (informative) Guidance on the use of this International Standard .10Annex B (informative) Correspondence between ISO 14001:2004 and ISO 9001:2000 .19Bibliography .23 ISO 2004 – All rights reservediii

ISO 14001:2004(E)ForewordISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies(ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out through ISOtechnical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical committee has beenestablished has the right to be represented on that committee. International organizations, governmental andnon-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work. ISO collaborates closely with the InternationalElectrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.International Standards are drafted in accordance with the rules given in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2.The main task of technical committees is to prepare International Standards. Draft International Standardsadopted by the technical committees are circulated to the member bodies for voting. Publication as anInternational Standard requires approval by at least 75 % of the member bodies casting a vote.Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patentrights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.ISO 14001 was prepared by Technical Committee ISO/TC 207, Environmental management, SubcommitteeSC 1, Environmental management systems.This second edition cancels and replaces the first edition (ISO 14001:1996), which has been technicallyrevised.iv ISO 2004 – All rights reserved

ISO 14001:2004(E)IntroductionOrganizations of all kinds are increasingly concerned with achieving and demonstrating sound environmentalperformance by controlling the impacts of their activities, products and services on the environment, consistentwith their environmental policy and objectives. They do so in the context of increasingly stringent legislation, thedevelopment of economic policies and other measures that foster environmental protection, and increasedconcern expressed by interested parties about environmental matters and sustainable development.Many organizations have undertaken environmental “reviews” or “audits” to assess their environmentalperformance. On their own, however, these “reviews” and “audits” may not be sufficient to provide anorganization with the assurance that its performance not only meets, but will continue to meet, its legal andpolicy requirements. To be effective, they need to be conducted within a structured management system that isintegrated within the organization.International Standards covering environmental management are intended to provide organizations with theelements of an effective environmental management system (EMS) that can be integrated with othermanagement requirements and help organizations achieve environmental and economic goals. Thesestandards, like other International Standards, are not intended to be used to create non-tariff trade barriers or toincrease or change an organization's legal obligations.This International Standard specifies requirements for an environmental management system to enable anorganization to develop and implement a policy and objectives which take into account legal requirements andinformation about significant environmental aspects. It is intended to apply to all types and sizes of organizationand to accommodate diverse geographical, cultural and social conditions. The basis of the approach is shownin Figure 1. The success of the system depends on commitment from all levels and functions of theorganization, and especially from top management. A system of this kind enables an organization to develop anenvironmental policy, establish objectives and processes to achieve the policy commitments, take action asneeded to improve its performance and demonstrate the conformity of the system to the requirements of thisInternational Standard. The overall aim of this International Standard is to support environmental protection andprevention of pollution in balance with socio-economic needs. It should be noted that many of the requirementscan be addressed concurrently or revisited at any time.The second edition of this International Standard is focused on clarification of the first edition, and has takendue consideration of the provisions of ISO 9001 to enhance the compatibility of the two standards for the benefitof the user community.For ease of use, the subclause numbers in Clause 4 of the body of this International Standard and in Annex Ahave been related. For example, 4.3.3 and A.3.3 both deal with objectives, targets and programme(s), and 4.5.5and A.5.5 both deal with internal audit. In addition, Annex B identifies broad technical correspondencesbetween ISO 14001:2004 and ISO 9001:2000 and vice versa.There is an important distinction between this International Standard, which describes the requirements for anorganization's environmental management system and can be used for certification/registration and/or selfdeclaration of an organization's environmental management system, and a non-certifiable guideline intended toprovide generic assistance to an organization for establishing, implementing or improving an environmentalmanagement system. Environmental management encompasses a full range of issues, including those withstrategic and competitive implications. Demonstration of successful implementation of this InternationalStandard can be used by an organization to assure interested parties that an appropriate environmentalmanagement system is in place.Guidance on supporting environmental management techniques is contained in other International Standards,particularly those on environmental management in the documents established by ISO/TC 207. Any referenceto other International Standards is for information only. ISO 2004 – All rights reservedv

ISO 14001:2004(E)NOTE This International Standard is based on the methodology known as Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA). PDCA can bebriefly described as follows.— Plan: establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the organization'senvironmental policy.— Do: implement the processes.— Check: monitor and measure processes against environmental policy, objectives, targets, legal and otherrequirements, and report the results.— Act: take actions to continually improve performance of the environmental management system.Many organizations manage their operations via the application of a system of processes and their interactions, which canbe referred to as the “process approach”. ISO 9001 promotes the use of the process approach. Since PDCA can beapplied to all processes, the two methodologies are considered to be compatible.Figure 1 — Environmental management system model for this International StandardThis International Standard contains only those requirements that can be objectively audited. Thoseorganizations requiring more general guidance on a broad range of environmental management system issuesare referred to ISO 14004.This International Standard does not establish absolute requirements for environmental performance beyondthe commitments, in the environmental policy, to comply with applicable legal requirements and with otherrequirements to which the organization subscribes, to prevention of pollution and to continual improvement.Thus, two organizations carrying out similar operations but having different environmental performance canboth conform to its requirements.The adoption and implementation of a range of environmental management techniques in a systematic mannercan contribute to optimal outcomes for all interested parties. However, adoption of this International Standardwill not in itself guarantee optimal environmental outcomes. In order to achieve environmental objectives, theenvironmental management system can encourage organizations to consider implementation of the bestvi ISO 2004 – All rights reserved

ISO 14001:2004(E)available techniques, where appropriate and where economically viable, and fully take into account the costeffectiveness of such techniques.This International Standard does not include requirements specific to other management systems, such asthose for quality, occupational health and safety, financial or risk management, though its elements can bealigned or integrated with those of other management systems. It is possible for an organization to adapt itsexisting management system(s) in order to establish an environmental management system that conforms tothe requirements of this International Standard. It is pointed out, however, that the application of variouselements of the management system might differ depending on the intended purpose and the interested partiesinvolved.The level of detail and complexity of the environmental management system, the extent of documentation andthe resources devoted to it depend on a number of factors, such as the scope of the system, the size of anorganization and the nature of its activities, products and services. This may be the case in particular for smalland medium-sized enterprises. ISO 2004 – All rights reservedvii

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INTERNATIONAL STANDARDISO 14001:2004(E)Environmental management systems — Requirements withguidance for use1 ScopeThis International Standard specifies requirements for an environmental management system to enable anorganization to develop and implement a policy and objectives which take into account legal requirements andother requirements to which the organization subscribes, and information about significant environmentalaspects. It applies to those environmental aspects that the organization identifies as those which it can controland those which it can influence. It does not itself state specific environmental performance criteria.This International Standard is applicable to any organization that wishes toa) establish, implement, maintain and improve an environmental management system,b) assure itself of conformity with its stated environmental policy,c) demonstrate conformity with this International Standard by1) making a self-determination and self-declaration, or2) seeking confirmation of its conformance by parties having an interest in the organization, such ascustomers, or3) seeking confirmation of its self-declaration by a party external to the organization, or4) seeking certification/registration of its environmental m